Alvarez & Marsal published the Valuation Insights – Germany September 2021[Read more…] about A&M Valuation Insights – Germany
Value Trust published the 8th edition of the European Capital Market Study – an analysis of cost of capital parameters and multiples for European capital markets.[Read more…] about European Capital Market Study
Open Access: Journal of Business Economics, 29 June 2021
Authors: Wolfgang Breuer & Santiago Ruiz de Vargas
Please follow this link: Some key developments in international financial management
Open Access: Journal of Business Economics, 1 October 2020
Authors: Andreas Schüler
Please follow this link: Cross-border DCF valuation: discounting cash flows in foreign currency
Abstract: The paper seeks to develop a comprehensive framework to cross-border discounted cash flow valuation. Although the literature on company valuation and on international financial management is vast, such a framework has not yet been proposed. We build upon well-known fundamentals and relevant contributions, e.g. on the derivation of the risk-adjusted rate of return. Relevant risks are exchange rate risk, business risk, financial risk, the risk of the tax effects induced by debt financing, and the risk of default. Additional tax effects beyond the well-known tax shield on interest expenses must be considered. Risk discounts from cash flows and risk premia to be added to risk-free interest rates are derived according to the global capital asset pricing model. A conceptual choice occurs not only between the foreign currency and the home currency approach, but also regarding the estimation of future exchange rates. The paper shows how a valuation can be implemented with or without consideration of covariances between cash flows and rate of returns with exchange rates. It also derives the discount rates if forward exchange rates are applied. We discuss the consequences of assuming the uncovered interest parity to hold. We assume deterministic debt and apply the adjusted present value approach. In addition, we derive the RADR to be used in the flow to equity and weighted average cost of capital approach. The paper addresses not only the valuation of a foreign company, but also the valuation of a domestic company that generates cash flows in foreign currency and/or uses debt in foreign currency.
Open Access: Journal of Business Economics, 24 October 2020
Authors: Stefan Dierkes & Ulrich Schäfer
Please follow this link: Valuation of firms with multiple business units
Abstract: Corporate valuation often relies on the assumption of a constant and homogenous growth rate. However, large firms frequently (re)balance their activities by diverting cash flows from some business units to fund investments in other units. We develop a value driver model of terminal value for a firm with two units. The model relaxes common assumptions and allows for cross-unit differences in the return on invested capital. We consider intra-unit and cross-unit investments and show their implications for firm value and the long-term development of key accounting variables. Our results help characterize business unit strategies that can be reconciled with popular firm strategies such as the constant payout and constant growth strategies. We find that popular valuation methods that assume both constant payout ratios and constant growth rates (e.g., Gordon and Shapiro, Manage Sci 3:102–110, 1956) constitute a restrictive special case of our model and should only be applied to firms with homogenous business units. We use a simulation analysis to compare our results with alternative valuation models and to illustrate the economic relevance of our findings. The simulation shows that an accurate depiction of business unit strategy is particularly useful if firms plan large-scale cross-unit investments into business units with high returns and if the cost of capital is low.